除了通过ECS管理控制台创建或管理ECS实例外,您还能通过API管理或定制开发ECS实例。阿里云提供了SDK来包装API,将云服务器ECS的管理集成到已有系统中。本文基于Python的开发来说明如何通过API管理ECS实例。如果您没有Python开发经验,也能通过本文完成云服务的开发。

获取RAM用户AccessKey

使用API管理ECS实例,您需要能访问ECS资源的AccessKey(AccessKey ID和AccessKey Secret)。为了保证云服务的安全,您需要创建一个能访问ECS资源的RAM用户,获取该用户的AccessKey,并使用这个RAM用户和API管理ECS实例。

按以下步骤获取RAM用户AccessKey:

  1. 创建RAM用户。详细步骤请参见账号访问控制
  2. 获取RAM用户AccessKey。详细步骤请参见创建AccessKey
  3. 为RAM用户授权,授予RAM用户管理云服务器服务(ECS)的权限。详细步骤请参见账号访问控制

安装ECS Python SDK

首先确保您已经具备Python的Runtime,本文中使用的Python版本为2.7+。

运行以下命令,安装Python SDK:
pip install aliyun-python-sdk-ecs
如果提示您没有权限,请切换sudo继续执行。
sudo pip install aliyun-python-sdk-ecs

本文使用的SDK版本为2.1.2。

创建hello_ecs_api.py

创建文件hello_ecs_api.py。为了使用SDK,首先实例化AcsClient对象,这里需要RAM用户的AccessKey ID和AccessKey Secret。

说明 AccessKey ID和AccessKey Secret是RAM用户访问阿里云ECS服务API的密钥,具有该账户完全的权限,请妥善保管。
from aliyunsdkcore import client
from aliyunsdkecs.request.v20140526.DescribeInstancesRequest import DescribeInstancesRequest
from aliyunsdkecs.request.v20140526.DescribeRegionsRequest import DescribeRegionsRequest
clt = client.AcsClient('Your Access Key Id', 'Your Access Key Secrect', 'cn-beijing')
完成实例化后可以进行第一个应用的开发。查询当前账号支持的地域列表。详情请参见DescribeRegions
def hello_aliyun_regions():
    request = DescribeRegionsRequest()
    response = _send_request(request)
    region_list = response.get('Regions').get('Region')
    assert response is not None
    assert region_list is not None
    result = map(_print_region_id, region_list)
    logging.info("region list: %s", result)
def _print_region_id(item):
    region_id = item.get("RegionId")
    return region_id
def _send_request(request):
    request.set_accept_format('json')
    try:
        response_str = clt.do_action(request)
        logging.info(response_str)
        response_detail = json.loads(response_str)
        return response_detail
    except Exception as e:
        logging.error(e)
hello_aliyun_regions()
在命令行运行python hello_ecs_api.py会得到当前支持的 Region列表。类似的输出如下:
[u'cn-shenzhen', u'ap-southeast-1', u'cn-qingdao', u'cn-beijing', u'cn-shanghai', u'us-east-1', u'cn-hongkong', u'me-east-1', u'ap-southeast-2', u'cn-hangzhou', u'eu-central-1', u'ap-northeast-1', u'us-west-1']

查询指定地域下的ECS实例

查询实例列表和查询Region列表非常类似,替换入参对象为DescribeInstancesRequest即可,更多详情,请参见DescribeInstances

def list_instances():
    request = DescribeInstancesRequest()
    response = _send_request(request)
    if response is not None:
        instance_list = response.get('Instances').get('Instance')
        result = map(_print_instance_id, instance_list)
        logging.info("current region include instance %s", result)
def _print_instance_id(item):
    instance_id = item.get('InstanceId');
    return instance_id
输出结果为如下:
current region include instance [u'i-****', u'i-****'']

更多API请参见API概览,您可以尝试查询磁盘列表(DescribeDisks),将实例的参数替换为DescribeDisksRequest

完整代码示例

以上操作完整的代码示例如下所示。
#  coding=utf-8
# if the python sdk is not install using 'sudo pip install aliyun-python-sdk-ecs'
# if the python sdk is install using 'sudo pip install --upgrade aliyun-python-sdk-ecs'
# make sure the sdk version is greater than 2.1.2, you can use command 'pip show aliyun-python-sdk-ecs' to check
import json
import logging
from aliyunsdkcore import client
from aliyunsdkecs.request.v20140526.DescribeInstancesRequest import DescribeInstancesRequest
from aliyunsdkecs.request.v20140526.DescribeRegionsRequest import DescribeRegionsRequest
# configuration the log output formatter, if you want to save the output to file,
# append ",filename='ecs_invoke.log'" after datefmt.
logging.basicConfig(level=logging.INFO,
                    format='%(asctime)s %(filename)s[line:%(lineno)d] %(levelname)s %(message)s',
                    datefmt='%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S')
clt = client.AcsClient('Your Access Key Id', 'Your Access Key Secrect', 'cn-beijing')
# sample api to list aliyun open api.
def hello_aliyun_regions():
    request = DescribeRegionsRequest()
    response = _send_request(request)
    if response is not None:
        region_list = response.get('Regions').get('Region')
        assert response is not None
        assert region_list is not None
        result = map(_print_region_id, region_list)
        logging.info("region list: %s", result)
# output the instance owned in current region.
def list_instances():
    request = DescribeInstancesRequest()
    response = _send_request(request)
    if response is not None:
        instance_list = response.get('Instances').get('Instance')
        result = map(_print_instance_id, instance_list)
        logging.info("current region include instance %s", result)
def _print_instance_id(item):
    instance_id = item.get('InstanceId');
    return instance_id
def _print_region_id(item):
    region_id = item.get("RegionId")
    return region_id
# send open api request
def _send_request(request):
    request.set_accept_format('json')
    try:
        response_str = clt.do_action(request)
        logging.info(response_str)
        response_detail = json.loads(response_str)
        return response_detail
    except Exception as e:
        logging.error(e)
if __name__ == '__main__':
    logging.info("Hello Aliyun OpenApi!")
    hello_aliyun_regions()
    list_instances()