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集合

更新时间:2019-09-18 13:14:39

数据库中的集合操作可以把多个查询的结果组合成一个结果集。集合操作主要包含:

  • UNION

  • INTERSECT

  • EXCEPT/MINUS
    在Ocenabase中,我们同时支持EXCEPT与MINUS,这两者的语义是相同的。这里需要注意的是参加集合操作的各查询结果的列数必须相同,对应的数据类型也必须兼容。对与UNION来说用户可以指定UNION的属性为ALL和DISTINCT/UNIQUE。分别代表集合可重复,和集合不可重复。而其它几种集合操作是不能指定ALL属性的(它们只有DISTINCT属性)。所有的集合操作默认的属性是DISTINCT。在Oceanbase中,集合操作中可以指定order by和 limit子句,但是不允许其他子句的出现,如下图所示

  1. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t1(a int primary key, b int, c int);
  2. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.16 sec)
  3. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t2(a int primary key, b int, c int);
  4. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)
  5. --支持union语句中出现order bylimit子句
  6. OceanBase (root@test)> (select * from t1 union all select * from t2) order by a limit 10;
  7. Empty set (0.02 sec)
  8. --不支持union语句中出现除order bylimit子句的其他子句,比如group by
  9. OceanBase (root@test)> OceanBase (root@test)> (select * from t1 union all select * from t2) group by a limit 10;
  10. ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your OceanBase version for the right syntax to use near 'OceanBase (root@test)> (select * from t1 union all select * from t2) group by a ' at line 1

UNION 示例

该例子获取t1和t2中所有不重复的行。

  1. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t1(a int, b int, c int);
  2. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)
  3. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t2(a int, b int, c int);
  4. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)
  5. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t1 values (1,1,1),(2,2,2),(3,3,3);
  6. Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.07 sec)
  7. Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  8. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t2 values (2,2,2),(3,3,3),(4,4,4);
  9. Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.02 sec)
  10. Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  11. OceanBase (root@test)> select * from t1 union select * from t2;
  12. +------+------+------+
  13. | a | b | c |
  14. +------+------+------+
  15. | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  16. | 2 | 2 | 2 |
  17. | 3 | 3 | 3 |
  18. | 4 | 4 | 4 |
  19. +------+------+------+
  20. 4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

UNION All 示例

该例子获取t1和t2中的所有行,不进行去重。

  1. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t1(a int, b int, c int);
  2. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)
  3. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t2(a int, b int, c int);
  4. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)
  5. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t1 values (1,1,1),(2,2,2),(3,3,3);
  6. Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.07 sec)
  7. Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  8. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t1 values (2,2,2),(3,3,3),(4,4,4);
  9. Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.02 sec)
  10. Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  11. OceanBase (root@test)> select * from t1 union all select * from t2;
  12. +------+------+------+
  13. | a | b | c |
  14. +------+------+------+
  15. | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  16. | 2 | 2 | 2 |
  17. | 3 | 3 | 3 |
  18. | 2 | 2 | 2 |
  19. | 3 | 3 | 3 |
  20. | 4 | 4 | 4 |
  21. +------+------+------+
  22. 6 rows in set (0.02 sec)

INTERSECT 示例

该例子获取同时出现在t1和t2中行,并且去重。

  1. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t1(a int, b int, c int);
  2. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)
  3. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t2(a int, b int, c int);
  4. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)
  5. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t1 values (1,1,1),(2,2,2),(3,3,3);
  6. Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.02 sec)
  7. Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  8. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t2 values (2,2,2),(3,3,3),(3,3,3),(4,4,4);
  9. Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec)
  10. Records: 4 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  11. OceanBase (root@test)> select * from t1 intersect select * from t2;
  12. +------+------+------+
  13. | a | b | c |
  14. +------+------+------+
  15. | 2 | 2 | 2 |
  16. | 3 | 3 | 3 |
  17. +------+------+------+
  18. 2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

EXCEPT/MINUS 示例

该例子获取出现在t1中,但是不出现在t2中的行,并且去重。

  1. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t1(a int, b int, c int);
  2. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)
  3. OceanBase (root@test)> create table t2(a int, b int, c int);
  4. Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)
  5. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t1 values (1,1,1),(2,2,2),(3,3,3);
  6. Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.02 sec)
  7. Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  8. OceanBase (root@test)> insert into t2 values (2,2,2),(3,3,3),(3,3,3),(4,4,4);
  9. Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec)
  10. Records: 4 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
  11. OceanBase (root@test)> select * from t1 except select * from t2;
  12. +------+------+------+
  13. | a | b | c |
  14. +------+------+------+
  15. | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  16. +------+------+------+
  17. 1 row in set (0.02 sec)