文档

使用容器垂直伸缩(VPA)

更新时间:

如果您希望根据Pod实际的资源使用情况,动态调整和优化资源配置,以确保Pod能够调度到资源充足的节点上,建议您为业务容器开启垂直伸缩VPA(Vertical Pod Autoscaler)功能。VPA能够监控Pod的资源消耗模式,灵活推荐CPU和内存资源分配的配置,并在适当的情况下自动进行调整,而不调整Pod的副本数量。这种能力更适用于需要稳定资源配置的有状态应用的扩容等场景。

阅读前提示

为了帮助您更好地使用VPA功能,建议您在阅读本文前参见Kubernetes社区VPA介绍了解VPA的基本信息、使用流程、已知限制等。

此外,ACK集群提供了多种工作负载伸缩(调度层弹性)和节点伸缩(资源层弹性)方案,建议您在使用本文档前阅读弹性伸缩概述,了解不同方案的适用场景、使用限制等。

ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件介绍

VPA基于ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件实现,以根据实际资源需求推荐并自动调整Pod中容器的CPU及内存的Request和Limit参数。同时,VPA也会遵循容器初始配置中定义的资源Request和Limit占比。ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件有以下组成部分:

  • Admission Controller组件:为新建Pod设置正确的资源请求值Requests。安装admission-controller组件前,您需要用此脚本为Webhook生成证书。

  • Recommender组件:监控容器目前和过去的资源使用情况,并基于检测数据推荐资源配置,以更准确地匹配资源使用需求。

  • Updater组件:检查VPA管理的Pod资源量配置是否正确。如果不正确,Updater会终止这些Pod,以便后续重建。

注意事项

重要

VPA功能目前处于Beta阶段,其性能未在大型集群中测试,请谨慎使用。如遇相关问题或有相关产品建议,请提交工单联系容器服务团队。

  • 更新正在运行的Pod资源配置会导致Pod的重建和重启,且有可能会被调度到其他节点上。VPA动态更新现有Pod的资源Request时,支持无需重启的更新机制,但此机制仍处于测试阶段。

  • VPA不会驱逐没有在副本控制器(Replication Controller)管理下的Pod。在VPA中,此类Pod的Auto模式等同于Initial模式,即VPA会为新的Pod设置资源请求和限制,但不会自动删除和重新创建那些资源分配不当的运行中的Pod。

  • 不推荐您为同一个工作负载部署多个VPA。多个VPA同时匹配同一个Pod时,可能会造成不可预测的行为。

  • VPA对Pod资源Request的修改值可能超过实际的资源上限,例如节点资源上限、空闲资源或资源配额,从而造成Pod处于Pending状态无法被调度。此时,使用节点自动伸缩可能可以解决这个问题:当Pod的资源使用率超出扩容阈值后,Pod将扩容,但此时节点资源不足,导致Pod调度失败并处于Pending状态,继而触发节点扩容。更多信息,请参见启用节点自动伸缩

  • 目前,VPA和HPA的Controller无法完全兼容。如果您同时使用VPA和HPA来监控CPU和内存使用情况,这可能会产生冲突。如果您的HPA仅监控其他定制化的或者外部的资源使用情况,可以避免此冲突。

  • VPA使用Admission Webhook作为其准入控制器。请确保集群中存在的其他Admission Webhook不会与VPA发生冲突。

    说明

    准入控制器的执行顺序定义可在API Server的配置参数中查找。

  • VPA会处理出现的绝大多数OOM(Out Of Memory)的事件,但无法保证所有的场景下都有效。

关于VPA更多的已知限制,请参见VPA已知限制

步骤一:安装ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件

您可以通过控制台(v1.26及以上集群)或kubectl(v1.12以上集群)的方式安装ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件

通过控制台安装(推荐)

推荐您通过容器服务管理控制台安装ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件,屏蔽组件底层复杂性,使用门槛和维护成本更低。

前提条件

说明

如果您之前通过kubectl的方式安装了VPA,建议您卸载该VPA,通过控制台重新安装。具体操作,请参见下文如何通过控制台管理使用kubectl安装的VPA?

安装步骤

  1. 登录容器服务管理控制台,在左侧导航栏选择集群

  2. 集群列表页面,单击目标集群名称,然后在左侧导航栏,选择运维管理 > 组件管理

  3. 组件管理页面,定位ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件,然后按照页面提示完成安装。

通过kubectl安装

前提条件

操作步骤

  1. 保存RBAC权限的YAML文件,并执行命令,创建RBAC权限文件。

    展开查看RBAC YAML文件

    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:metrics-reader
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - "metrics.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - pods
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-actor
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - pods
          - nodes
          - limitranges
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - events
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
          - create
      - apiGroups:
          - "poc.autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalers
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - "autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalers
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-status-actor
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - "autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalers/status
        verbs:
          - get
          - patch
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-checkpoint-actor
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - "poc.autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
          - create
          - patch
          - delete
      - apiGroups:
          - "autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
          - create
          - patch
          - delete
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - namespaces
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:evictioner
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - "apps"
          - "extensions"
        resources:
          - replicasets
        verbs:
          - get
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - pods/eviction
        verbs:
          - create
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:metrics-reader
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:metrics-reader
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-recommender
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-actor
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:vpa-actor
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-recommender
        namespace: kube-system
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-updater
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-status-actor
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:vpa-status-actor
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-recommender
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-checkpoint-actor
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:vpa-checkpoint-actor
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-recommender
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-target-reader
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
        - '*'
        resources:
        - '*/scale'
        verbs:
        - get
        - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - replicationcontrollers
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - apps
        resources:
          - daemonsets
          - deployments
          - replicasets
          - statefulsets
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - batch
        resources:
          - jobs
          - cronjobs
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-target-reader-binding
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:vpa-target-reader
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-recommender
        namespace: kube-system
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-admission-controller
        namespace: kube-system
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-updater
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-evictioner-binding
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:evictioner
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-updater
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
      name: vpa-admission-controller
      namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
      name: vpa-recommender
      namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
      name: vpa-updater
      namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-admission-controller
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - pods
          - configmaps
          - nodes
          - limitranges
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - "admissionregistration.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - mutatingwebhookconfigurations
        verbs:
          - create
          - delete
          - get
          - list
      - apiGroups:
          - "poc.autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalers
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - "autoscaling.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - verticalpodautoscalers
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - "coordination.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - leases
        verbs:
          - create
          - update
          - get
          - list
          - watch
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-admission-controller
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:vpa-admission-controller
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-admission-controller
        namespace: kube-system
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-status-reader
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - "coordination.k8s.io"
        resources:
          - leases
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: system:vpa-status-reader-binding
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: system:vpa-status-reader
    subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: vpa-updater
        namespace: kube-system
    kubectl apply -f rbac.yaml
  2. 保存CRD的YAML文件,并执行命令,创建ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件的CRD。

    说明

    CRD可以提高Kubernetes的扩展能力,详情请参见Extend the Kubernetes API with CustomResourceDefinitions

    CRD YAML定义如下:

    1.22≤ 集群版本<1.26

    展开查看CRD YAML

    apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
    kind: CustomResourceDefinition
    metadata:
      annotations:
        api-approved.kubernetes.io: https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/pull/63797
        controller-gen.kubebuilder.io/version: v0.9.2
      creationTimestamp: null
      name: verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints.autoscaling.k8s.io
    spec:
      group: autoscaling.k8s.io
      names:
        kind: VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpoint
        listKind: VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpointList
        plural: verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints
        shortNames:
        - vpacheckpoint
        singular: verticalpodautoscalercheckpoint
      scope: Namespaced
      versions:
      - name: v1
        schema:
          openAPIV3Schema:
            description: VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpoint is the checkpoint of the internal
              state of VPA that is used for recovery after recommender's restart.
            properties:
              apiVersion:
                description: 'APIVersion defines the versioned schema of this representation
                  of an object. Servers should convert recognized schemas to the latest
                  internal value, and may reject unrecognized values. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#resources'
                type: string
              kind:
                description: 'Kind is a string value representing the REST resource this
                  object represents. Servers may infer this from the endpoint the client
                  submits requests to. Cannot be updated. In CamelCase. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#types-kinds'
                type: string
              metadata:
                type: object
              spec:
                description: 'Specification of the checkpoint. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#spec-and-status.'
                properties:
                  containerName:
                    description: Name of the checkpointed container.
                    type: string
                  vpaObjectName:
                    description: Name of the VPA object that stored VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpoint
                      object.
                    type: string
                type: object
              status:
                description: Data of the checkpoint.
                properties:
                  cpuHistogram:
                    description: Checkpoint of histogram for consumption of CPU.
                    properties:
                      bucketWeights:
                        description: Map from bucket index to bucket weight.
                        type: object
                        x-kubernetes-preserve-unknown-fields: true
                      referenceTimestamp:
                        description: Reference timestamp for samples collected within
                          this histogram.
                        format: date-time
                        nullable: true
                        type: string
                      totalWeight:
                        description: Sum of samples to be used as denominator for weights
                          from BucketWeights.
                        type: number
                    type: object
                  firstSampleStart:
                    description: Timestamp of the fist sample from the histograms.
                    format: date-time
                    nullable: true
                    type: string
                  lastSampleStart:
                    description: Timestamp of the last sample from the histograms.
                    format: date-time
                    nullable: true
                    type: string
                  lastUpdateTime:
                    description: The time when the status was last refreshed.
                    format: date-time
                    nullable: true
                    type: string
                  memoryHistogram:
                    description: Checkpoint of histogram for consumption of memory.
                    properties:
                      bucketWeights:
                        description: Map from bucket index to bucket weight.
                        type: object
                        x-kubernetes-preserve-unknown-fields: true
                      referenceTimestamp:
                        description: Reference timestamp for samples collected within
                          this histogram.
                        format: date-time
                        nullable: true
                        type: string
                      totalWeight:
                        description: Sum of samples to be used as denominator for weights
                          from BucketWeights.
                        type: number
                    type: object
                  totalSamplesCount:
                    description: Total number of samples in the histograms.
                    type: integer
                  version:
                    description: Version of the format of the stored data.
                    type: string
                type: object
            type: object
        served: true
        storage: true
      - name: v1beta2
        schema:
          openAPIV3Schema:
            description: VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpoint is the checkpoint of the internal
              state of VPA that is used for recovery after recommender's restart.
            properties:
              apiVersion:
                description: 'APIVersion defines the versioned schema of this representation
                  of an object. Servers should convert recognized schemas to the latest
                  internal value, and may reject unrecognized values. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#resources'
                type: string
              kind:
                description: 'Kind is a string value representing the REST resource this
                  object represents. Servers may infer this from the endpoint the client
                  submits requests to. Cannot be updated. In CamelCase. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#types-kinds'
                type: string
              metadata:
                type: object
              spec:
                description: 'Specification of the checkpoint. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#spec-and-status.'
                properties:
                  containerName:
                    description: Name of the checkpointed container.
                    type: string
                  vpaObjectName:
                    description: Name of the VPA object that stored VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpoint
                      object.
                    type: string
                type: object
              status:
                description: Data of the checkpoint.
                properties:
                  cpuHistogram:
                    description: Checkpoint of histogram for consumption of CPU.
                    properties:
                      bucketWeights:
                        description: Map from bucket index to bucket weight.
                        type: object
                        x-kubernetes-preserve-unknown-fields: true
                      referenceTimestamp:
                        description: Reference timestamp for samples collected within
                          this histogram.
                        format: date-time
                        nullable: true
                        type: string
                      totalWeight:
                        description: Sum of samples to be used as denominator for weights
                          from BucketWeights.
                        type: number
                    type: object
                  firstSampleStart:
                    description: Timestamp of the fist sample from the histograms.
                    format: date-time
                    nullable: true
                    type: string
                  lastSampleStart:
                    description: Timestamp of the last sample from the histograms.
                    format: date-time
                    nullable: true
                    type: string
                  lastUpdateTime:
                    description: The time when the status was last refreshed.
                    format: date-time
                    nullable: true
                    type: string
                  memoryHistogram:
                    description: Checkpoint of histogram for consumption of memory.
                    properties:
                      bucketWeights:
                        description: Map from bucket index to bucket weight.
                        type: object
                        x-kubernetes-preserve-unknown-fields: true
                      referenceTimestamp:
                        description: Reference timestamp for samples collected within
                          this histogram.
                        format: date-time
                        nullable: true
                        type: string
                      totalWeight:
                        description: Sum of samples to be used as denominator for weights
                          from BucketWeights.
                        type: number
                    type: object
                  totalSamplesCount:
                    description: Total number of samples in the histograms.
                    type: integer
                  version:
                    description: Version of the format of the stored data.
                    type: string
                type: object
            type: object
        served: true
        storage: false
    ---
    apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
    kind: CustomResourceDefinition
    metadata:
      annotations:
        api-approved.kubernetes.io: https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/pull/63797
        controller-gen.kubebuilder.io/version: v0.9.2
      creationTimestamp: null
      name: verticalpodautoscalers.autoscaling.k8s.io
    spec:
      group: autoscaling.k8s.io
      names:
        kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler
        listKind: VerticalPodAutoscalerList
        plural: verticalpodautoscalers
        shortNames:
        - vpa
        singular: verticalpodautoscaler
      scope: Namespaced
      versions:
      - additionalPrinterColumns:
        - jsonPath: .spec.updatePolicy.updateMode
          name: Mode
          type: string
        - jsonPath: .status.recommendation.containerRecommendations[0].target.cpu
          name: CPU
          type: string
        - jsonPath: .status.recommendation.containerRecommendations[0].target.memory
          name: Mem
          type: string
        - jsonPath: .status.conditions[?(@.type=='RecommendationProvided')].status
          name: Provided
          type: string
        - jsonPath: .metadata.creationTimestamp
          name: Age
          type: date
        name: v1
        schema:
          openAPIV3Schema:
            description: VerticalPodAutoscaler is the configuration for a vertical pod
              autoscaler, which automatically manages pod resources based on historical
              and real time resource utilization.
            properties:
              apiVersion:
                description: 'APIVersion defines the versioned schema of this representation
                  of an object. Servers should convert recognized schemas to the latest
                  internal value, and may reject unrecognized values. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#resources'
                type: string
              kind:
                description: 'Kind is a string value representing the REST resource this
                  object represents. Servers may infer this from the endpoint the client
                  submits requests to. Cannot be updated. In CamelCase. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#types-kinds'
                type: string
              metadata:
                type: object
              spec:
                description: 'Specification of the behavior of the autoscaler. More info:
                  https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#spec-and-status.'
                properties:
                  recommenders:
                    description: Recommender responsible for generating recommendation
                      for this object. List should be empty (then the default recommender
                      will generate the recommendation) or contain exactly one recommender.
                    items:
                      description: VerticalPodAutoscalerRecommenderSelector points to
                        a specific Vertical Pod Autoscaler recommender. In the future
                        it might pass parameters to the recommender.
                      properties:
                        name:
                          description: Name of the recommender responsible for generating
                            recommendation for this object.
                          type: string
                      required:
                      - name
                      type: object
                    type: array
                  resourcePolicy:
                    description: Controls how the autoscaler computes recommended resources.
                      The resource policy may be used to set constraints on the recommendations
                      for individual containers. If not specified, the autoscaler computes
                      recommended resources for all containers in the pod, without additional
                      constraints.
                    properties:
                      containerPolicies:
                        description: Per-container resource policies.
                        items:
                          description: ContainerResourcePolicy controls how autoscaler
                            computes the recommended resources for a specific container.
                          properties:
                            containerName:
                              description: Name of the container or DefaultContainerResourcePolicy,
                                in which case the policy is used by the containers that
                                don't have their own policy specified.
                              type: string
                            controlledResources:
                              description: Specifies the type of recommendations that
                                will be computed (and possibly applied) by VPA. If not
                                specified, the default of [ResourceCPU, ResourceMemory]
                                will be used.
                              items:
                                description: ResourceName is the name identifying various
                                  resources in a ResourceList.
                                type: string
                              type: array
                            controlledValues:
                              description: Specifies which resource values should be controlled.
                                The default is "RequestsAndLimits".
                              enum:
                              - RequestsAndLimits
                              - RequestsOnly
                              type: string
                            maxAllowed:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Specifies the maximum amount of resources that
                                will be recommended for the container. The default is
                                no maximum.
                              type: object
                            minAllowed:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Specifies the minimal amount of resources that
                                will be recommended for the container. The default is
                                no minimum.
                              type: object
                            mode:
                              description: Whether autoscaler is enabled for the container.
                                The default is "Auto".
                              enum:
                              - Auto
                              - "Off"
                              type: string
                          type: object
                        type: array
                    type: object
                  targetRef:
                    description: TargetRef points to the controller managing the set of
                      pods for the autoscaler to control - e.g. Deployment, StatefulSet.
                      VerticalPodAutoscaler can be targeted at controller implementing
                      scale subresource (the pod set is retrieved from the controller's
                      ScaleStatus) or some well known controllers (e.g. for DaemonSet
                      the pod set is read from the controller's spec). If VerticalPodAutoscaler
                      cannot use specified target it will report ConfigUnsupported condition.
                      Note that VerticalPodAutoscaler does not require full implementation
                      of scale subresource - it will not use it to modify the replica
                      count. The only thing retrieved is a label selector matching pods
                      grouped by the target resource.
                    properties:
                      apiVersion:
                        description: API version of the referent
                        type: string
                      kind:
                        description: 'Kind of the referent; More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#types-kinds"'
                        type: string
                      name:
                        description: 'Name of the referent; More info: http://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/identifiers#names'
                        type: string
                    required:
                    - kind
                    - name
                    type: object
                    x-kubernetes-map-type: atomic
                  updatePolicy:
                    description: Describes the rules on how changes are applied to the
                      pods. If not specified, all fields in the `PodUpdatePolicy` are
                      set to their default values.
                    properties:
                      minReplicas:
                        description: Minimal number of replicas which need to be alive
                          for Updater to attempt pod eviction (pending other checks like
                          PDB). Only positive values are allowed. Overrides global '--min-replicas'
                          flag.
                        format: int32
                        type: integer
                      updateMode:
                        description: Controls when autoscaler applies changes to the pod
                          resources. The default is 'Auto'.
                        enum:
                        - "Off"
                        - Initial
                        - Recreate
                        - Auto
                        type: string
                    type: object
                required:
                - targetRef
                type: object
              status:
                description: Current information about the autoscaler.
                properties:
                  conditions:
                    description: Conditions is the set of conditions required for this
                      autoscaler to scale its target, and indicates whether or not those
                      conditions are met.
                    items:
                      description: VerticalPodAutoscalerCondition describes the state
                        of a VerticalPodAutoscaler at a certain point.
                      properties:
                        lastTransitionTime:
                          description: lastTransitionTime is the last time the condition
                            transitioned from one status to another
                          format: date-time
                          type: string
                        message:
                          description: message is a human-readable explanation containing
                            details about the transition
                          type: string
                        reason:
                          description: reason is the reason for the condition's last transition.
                          type: string
                        status:
                          description: status is the status of the condition (True, False,
                            Unknown)
                          type: string
                        type:
                          description: type describes the current condition
                          type: string
                      required:
                      - status
                      - type
                      type: object
                    type: array
                  recommendation:
                    description: The most recently computed amount of resources recommended
                      by the autoscaler for the controlled pods.
                    properties:
                      containerRecommendations:
                        description: Resources recommended by the autoscaler for each
                          container.
                        items:
                          description: RecommendedContainerResources is the recommendation
                            of resources computed by autoscaler for a specific container.
                            Respects the container resource policy if present in the spec.
                            In particular the recommendation is not produced for containers
                            with `ContainerScalingMode` set to 'Off'.
                          properties:
                            containerName:
                              description: Name of the container.
                              type: string
                            lowerBound:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Minimum recommended amount of resources. Observes
                                ContainerResourcePolicy. This amount is not guaranteed
                                to be sufficient for the application to operate in a stable
                                way, however running with less resources is likely to
                                have significant impact on performance/availability.
                              type: object
                            target:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Recommended amount of resources. Observes ContainerResourcePolicy.
                              type: object
                            uncappedTarget:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: The most recent recommended resources target
                                computed by the autoscaler for the controlled pods, based
                                only on actual resource usage, not taking into account
                                the ContainerResourcePolicy. May differ from the Recommendation
                                if the actual resource usage causes the target to violate
                                the ContainerResourcePolicy (lower than MinAllowed or
                                higher that MaxAllowed). Used only as status indication,
                                will not affect actual resource assignment.
                              type: object
                            upperBound:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Maximum recommended amount of resources. Observes
                                ContainerResourcePolicy. Any resources allocated beyond
                                this value are likely wasted. This value may be larger
                                than the maximum amount of application is actually capable
                                of consuming.
                              type: object
                          required:
                          - target
                          type: object
                        type: array
                    type: object
                type: object
            required:
            - spec
            type: object
        served: true
        storage: true
        subresources: {}
      - deprecated: true
        deprecationWarning: autoscaling.k8s.io/v1beta2 API is deprecated
        name: v1beta2
        schema:
          openAPIV3Schema:
            description: VerticalPodAutoscaler is the configuration for a vertical pod
              autoscaler, which automatically manages pod resources based on historical
              and real time resource utilization.
            properties:
              apiVersion:
                description: 'APIVersion defines the versioned schema of this representation
                  of an object. Servers should convert recognized schemas to the latest
                  internal value, and may reject unrecognized values. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#resources'
                type: string
              kind:
                description: 'Kind is a string value representing the REST resource this
                  object represents. Servers may infer this from the endpoint the client
                  submits requests to. Cannot be updated. In CamelCase. More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#types-kinds'
                type: string
              metadata:
                type: object
              spec:
                description: 'Specification of the behavior of the autoscaler. More info:
                  https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#spec-and-status.'
                properties:
                  resourcePolicy:
                    description: Controls how the autoscaler computes recommended resources.
                      The resource policy may be used to set constraints on the recommendations
                      for individual containers. If not specified, the autoscaler computes
                      recommended resources for all containers in the pod, without additional
                      constraints.
                    properties:
                      containerPolicies:
                        description: Per-container resource policies.
                        items:
                          description: ContainerResourcePolicy controls how autoscaler
                            computes the recommended resources for a specific container.
                          properties:
                            containerName:
                              description: Name of the container or DefaultContainerResourcePolicy,
                                in which case the policy is used by the containers that
                                don't have their own policy specified.
                              type: string
                            maxAllowed:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Specifies the maximum amount of resources that
                                will be recommended for the container. The default is
                                no maximum.
                              type: object
                            minAllowed:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Specifies the minimal amount of resources that
                                will be recommended for the container. The default is
                                no minimum.
                              type: object
                            mode:
                              description: Whether autoscaler is enabled for the container.
                                The default is "Auto".
                              enum:
                              - Auto
                              - "Off"
                              type: string
                          type: object
                        type: array
                    type: object
                  targetRef:
                    description: TargetRef points to the controller managing the set of
                      pods for the autoscaler to control - e.g. Deployment, StatefulSet.
                      VerticalPodAutoscaler can be targeted at controller implementing
                      scale subresource (the pod set is retrieved from the controller's
                      ScaleStatus) or some well known controllers (e.g. for DaemonSet
                      the pod set is read from the controller's spec). If VerticalPodAutoscaler
                      cannot use specified target it will report ConfigUnsupported condition.
                      Note that VerticalPodAutoscaler does not require full implementation
                      of scale subresource - it will not use it to modify the replica
                      count. The only thing retrieved is a label selector matching pods
                      grouped by the target resource.
                    properties:
                      apiVersion:
                        description: API version of the referent
                        type: string
                      kind:
                        description: 'Kind of the referent; More info: https://git.k8s.io/community/contributors/devel/sig-architecture/api-conventions.md#types-kinds"'
                        type: string
                      name:
                        description: 'Name of the referent; More info: http://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/identifiers#names'
                        type: string
                    required:
                    - kind
                    - name
                    type: object
                    x-kubernetes-map-type: atomic
                  updatePolicy:
                    description: Describes the rules on how changes are applied to the
                      pods. If not specified, all fields in the `PodUpdatePolicy` are
                      set to their default values.
                    properties:
                      updateMode:
                        description: Controls when autoscaler applies changes to the pod
                          resources. The default is 'Auto'.
                        enum:
                        - "Off"
                        - Initial
                        - Recreate
                        - Auto
                        type: string
                    type: object
                required:
                - targetRef
                type: object
              status:
                description: Current information about the autoscaler.
                properties:
                  conditions:
                    description: Conditions is the set of conditions required for this
                      autoscaler to scale its target, and indicates whether or not those
                      conditions are met.
                    items:
                      description: VerticalPodAutoscalerCondition describes the state
                        of a VerticalPodAutoscaler at a certain point.
                      properties:
                        lastTransitionTime:
                          description: lastTransitionTime is the last time the condition
                            transitioned from one status to another
                          format: date-time
                          type: string
                        message:
                          description: message is a human-readable explanation containing
                            details about the transition
                          type: string
                        reason:
                          description: reason is the reason for the condition's last transition.
                          type: string
                        status:
                          description: status is the status of the condition (True, False,
                            Unknown)
                          type: string
                        type:
                          description: type describes the current condition
                          type: string
                      required:
                      - status
                      - type
                      type: object
                    type: array
                  recommendation:
                    description: The most recently computed amount of resources recommended
                      by the autoscaler for the controlled pods.
                    properties:
                      containerRecommendations:
                        description: Resources recommended by the autoscaler for each
                          container.
                        items:
                          description: RecommendedContainerResources is the recommendation
                            of resources computed by autoscaler for a specific container.
                            Respects the container resource policy if present in the spec.
                            In particular the recommendation is not produced for containers
                            with `ContainerScalingMode` set to 'Off'.
                          properties:
                            containerName:
                              description: Name of the container.
                              type: string
                            lowerBound:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Minimum recommended amount of resources. Observes
                                ContainerResourcePolicy. This amount is not guaranteed
                                to be sufficient for the application to operate in a stable
                                way, however running with less resources is likely to
                                have significant impact on performance/availability.
                              type: object
                            target:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Recommended amount of resources. Observes ContainerResourcePolicy.
                              type: object
                            uncappedTarget:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: The most recent recommended resources target
                                computed by the autoscaler for the controlled pods, based
                                only on actual resource usage, not taking into account
                                the ContainerResourcePolicy. May differ from the Recommendation
                                if the actual resource usage causes the target to violate
                                the ContainerResourcePolicy (lower than MinAllowed or
                                higher that MaxAllowed). Used only as status indication,
                                will not affect actual resource assignment.
                              type: object
                            upperBound:
                              additionalProperties:
                                anyOf:
                                - type: integer
                                - type: string
                                pattern: ^(\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))(([KMGTPE]i)|[numkMGTPE]|([eE](\+|-)?(([0-9]+(\.[0-9]*)?)|(\.[0-9]+))))?$
                                x-kubernetes-int-or-string: true
                              description: Maximum recommended amount of resources. Observes
                                ContainerResourcePolicy. Any resources allocated beyond
                                this value are likely wasted. This value may be larger
                                than the maximum amount of application is actually capable
                                of consuming.
                              type: object
                          required:
                          - target
                          type: object
                        type: array
                    type: object
                type: object
            required:
            - spec
            type: object
        served: true
        storage: false

    集群版本<1.22

    展开查看CRD YAML

    apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
    kind: CustomResourceDefinition
    metadata:
      name: verticalpodautoscalers.autoscaling.k8s.io
      annotations:
        "api-approved.kubernetes.io": "https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/pull/63797"
    spec:
      group: autoscaling.k8s.io
      scope: Namespaced
      names:
        plural: verticalpodautoscalers
        singular: verticalpodautoscaler
        kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler
        shortNames:
          - vpa
      version: v1beta1
      versions:
        - name: v1beta1
          served: false
          storage: false
        - name: v1beta2
          served: true
          storage: true
        - name: v1
          served: true
          storage: false
      validation:
        # openAPIV3Schema is the schema for validating custom objects.
        openAPIV3Schema:
          type: object
          properties:
            spec:
              type: object
              required: []
              properties:
                targetRef:
                  type: object
                updatePolicy:
                  type: object
                  properties:
                    updateMode:
                      type: string
                resourcePolicy:
                  type: object
                  properties:
                    containerPolicies:
                      type: array
                      items:
                        type: object
                        properties:
                          containerName:
                            type: string
                          controlledValues:
                            type: string
                            enum: ["RequestsAndLimits", "RequestsOnly"]
                          mode:
                            type: string
                            enum: ["Auto", "Off"]
                          minAllowed:
                            type: object
                          maxAllowed:
                            type: object
                          controlledResources:
                            type: array
                            items:
                              type: string
                              enum: ["cpu", "memory"]
    ---
    apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
    kind: CustomResourceDefinition
    metadata:
      name: verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints.autoscaling.k8s.io
      annotations:
        "api-approved.kubernetes.io": "https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/pull/63797"
    spec:
      group: autoscaling.k8s.io
      scope: Namespaced
      names:
        plural: verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints
        singular: verticalpodautoscalercheckpoint
        kind: VerticalPodAutoscalerCheckpoint
        shortNames:
          - vpacheckpoint
      version: v1beta1
      versions:
        - name: v1beta1
          served: false
          storage: false
        - name: v1beta2
          served: true
          storage: true
        - name: v1
          served: true
          storage: false
    kubectl apply -f crd.yaml
  3. 安装ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件的Admission Controller、Recommender和Updater组件。

    1.22≤ 集群版本<1.26

    Admission-controller组件

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: vpa-admission-controller
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: vpa-admission-controller
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: vpa-admission-controller
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: vpa-admission-controller
          securityContext:
            runAsNonRoot: true
            runAsUser: 65534 # nobody
          containers:
            - name: admission-controller
              image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/vpa-admission-controller:0.13.0
              imagePullPolicy: Always
              env:
                - name: NAMESPACE
                  valueFrom:
                    fieldRef:
                      fieldPath: metadata.namespace
              volumeMounts:
                - name: tls-certs
                  mountPath: "/etc/tls-certs"
                  readOnly: true
              resources:
                limits:
                  cpu: 200m
                  memory: 500Mi
                requests:
                  cpu: 50m
                  memory: 200Mi
              ports:
                - containerPort: 8000
                - name: prometheus
                  containerPort: 8944
          volumes:
            - name: tls-certs
              secret:
                secretName: vpa-tls-certs
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: vpa-webhook
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      ports:
        - port: 443
          targetPort: 8000
      selector:
        app: vpa-admission-controller

    Recommender组件

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: vpa-recommender
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: vpa-recommender
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: vpa-recommender
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: vpa-recommender
          securityContext:
            runAsNonRoot: true
            runAsUser: 65534 # nobody
          containers:
          - name: recommender
            image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/vpa-recommender:0.13.0
            imagePullPolicy: Always
            resources:
              limits:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 1000Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 50m
                memory: 500Mi
            ports:
            - name: prometheus
              containerPort: 8942

    Updater组件

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: vpa-updater
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: vpa-updater
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: vpa-updater
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: vpa-updater
          securityContext:
            runAsNonRoot: true
            runAsUser: 65534 # nobody
          containers:
            - name: updater
              image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/vpa-updater:0.13.0
              imagePullPolicy: Always
              env:
                - name: NAMESPACE
                  valueFrom:
                    fieldRef:
                      fieldPath: metadata.namespace
              resources:
                limits:
                  cpu: 200m
                  memory: 1000Mi
                requests:
                  cpu: 50m
                  memory: 500Mi
              ports:
                - name: prometheus
                  containerPort: 8943

    集群版本<1.22

    Admission-controller组件

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: vpa-admission-controller
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: vpa-admission-controller
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: vpa-admission-controller
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: admin
          containers:
            - name: admission-controller
              image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/vpa-admission-controller:0.7.0
              imagePullPolicy: Always
              env:
                - name: NAMESPACE
                  valueFrom:
                    fieldRef:
                      fieldPath: metadata.namespace
              volumeMounts:
                - name: tls-certs
                  mountPath: "/etc/tls-certs"
                  readOnly: true
              resources:
                limits:
                  cpu: 200m
                  memory: 500Mi
                requests:
                  cpu: 50m
                  memory: 200Mi
              ports:
                - containerPort: 8000
          volumes:
            - name: tls-certs
              secret:
                secretName: vpa-tls-certs
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: vpa-webhook
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      ports:
        - port: 443
          targetPort: 8000
      selector:
        app: vpa-admission-controller

    Recommender组件

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: vpa-recommender
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: vpa-recommender
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: vpa-recommender
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: admin
          containers:
          - name: recommender
            image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/vpa-recommender:0.7.0
            imagePullPolicy: Always
            resources:
              limits:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 1000Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 50m
                memory: 500Mi
            ports:
            - containerPort: 8080

    Updater组件

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: vpa-updater
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: vpa-updater
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: vpa-updater
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: admin
          containers:
            - name: updater
              image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/vpa-updater:0.7.0
              imagePullPolicy: Always
              resources:
                limits:
                  cpu: 200m
                  memory: 1000Mi
                requests:
                  cpu: 50m
                  memory: 500Mi
              ports:
                - containerPort: 8080

步骤二:验证安装VPA

  1. 保存以下YAML文件,执行命令创建名为nginx-deployment-basic的Deployment。

    展开查看nginx-deployment-basic.yaml文件

    说明

    将Deployment中的资源requestslimits留空。

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: nginx-deployment-basic
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:
      replicas: 2
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: nginx
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: nginx
        spec:
          containers:
          - name: nginx
            image: nginx:1.7.9
            ports:
            - containerPort: 80
    kubectl apply -f nginx-deployment-basic.yaml
  2. 保存以下YAML文件,执行命令创建名为nginx-deployment-basic-vpa的VPA资源。

    展开查看nginx-deployment-basic-vpa.yaml文件

    说明

    您可以按需设置updateModeOff或者Auto

    • Off(推荐):根据集群资源消耗推荐Pod的资源Request和Limit配置,但不会自动更新Pod资源配置。

    • Auto:根据集群资源消耗推荐Pod的资源Request和Limit配置,并自动更新Pod资源配置。

    apiVersion: autoscaling.k8s.io/v1
    kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler
    metadata:
      name: nginx-deployment-basic-vpa
    spec:
      targetRef:
        apiVersion: "apps/v1"
        kind:       Deployment
        name:       nginx-deployment-basic
      updatePolicy:
        updateMode: "Off" # 设置为off。
    kubectl apply -f nginx-deployment-basic-vpa.yaml
  3. 执行以下命令,查询VPA为Deployment推荐的CPU和内存资源的requests值。

    kubectl describe vpa nginx-deployment-basic-vpa

    预期输出需要等待两分钟左右。正常情况下,预期输出如下,展示了VPA为Deployment推荐的值。

    展开查看预期输出

      Recommendation:
        Container Recommendations:
          Container Name:  nginx
          Lower Bound:
            Cpu:     25m
            Memory:  262144k
          Target:
            Cpu:     25m
            Memory:  262144k
          Uncapped Target:
            Cpu:     25m
            Memory:  262144k
          Upper Bound:
            Cpu:     11601m
            Memory:  12128573170

    您可以根据VPA的推荐值来配置Deployment中实际资源的requests。VPA会持续监控应用资源的使用情况,并提供优化建议。

如何通过控制台管理使用kubectl安装的VPA?

对于v1.26及以上的集群,推荐您使用控制台进行ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件的安装和VPA的管理。为避免新旧VPA冲突,请卸载旧的VPA(通过kubectl安装的VPA),并通过控制台重新安装。

展开查看完整的操作步骤

步骤1:卸载集群中已经部署的VPA

卸载集群中已经部署的VPA,包括清理Deployment、RBAC、Secret、CRD、Service等资源,以避免新安装的VPA与旧版VPA冲突而导致VPA不可用。

  1. 在旧版VPA的YAML文件中(本小节以下方示例nginx-deployment-basic-vpa.yaml为例),删除metadata中的信息,仅保留namenamespace字段即可,同时删除status字段信息。然后,保存此YAML文件供后续步骤使用。

    apiVersion: autoscaling.k8s.io/v1
    kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler
    metadata:
      annotations:
        kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration: |
          {"apiVersion":"autoscaling.k8s.io/v1","kind":"VerticalPodAutoscaler","metadata":{"annotations":{},"name":"nginx-deployment-basic-vpa","namespace":"default"},"spec":{"targetRef":{"apiVersion":"apps/v1","kind":"Deployment","name":"nginx-deployment-basic"},"updatePolicy":{"updateMode":"Off"}}}
      creationTimestamp: "2024-02-29T06:03:35Z"
      generation: 1
      name: nginx-deployment-basic-vpa
      namespace: default
      resourceVersion: "56264"
      uid: 9f128737-d12e-46f6-b254-c1a7505c19c6
    spec:
      targetRef:
        apiVersion: apps/v1
        kind: Deployment
        name: nginx-deployment-basic
      updatePolicy:
        updateMode: "Off"
    status:
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-02-29T06:03:55Z"
        status: "True"
        type: RecommendationProvided
      recommendation:
        containerRecommendations:
        - containerName: nginx
          lowerBound:
            cpu: 25m
            memory: 262144k
          target:
            cpu: 25m
            memory: 262144k
          uncappedTarget:
            cpu: 25m
            memory: 262144k
          upperBound:
            cpu: 25m
            memory: 262144k
    kubectl get vpa nginx-deployment-basic-vpa -oyaml
  2. 执行以下命令,删除VPA组件安装的资源。

    // 删除Deployment和Service
    kubectl delete deployment vpa-admission-controller vpa-recommender vpa-updater -n kube-system
    kubectl delete svc vpa-webhook -n kube-system
    // 删除ClusterRole
    kubectl delete clusterrole system:metrics-reader system:vpa-actor system:vpa-status-actor system:vpa-checkpoint-actor system:evictioner system:vpa-target-reader  system:vpa-admission-controller system:vpa-status-reader
    // 删除ClusterRoleBinding
    kubectl delete clusterrolebinding system:metrics-reader system:vpa-actor system:vpa-status-actor system:vpa-checkpoint-actor system:vpa-target-reader-binding system:vpa-evictioner-binding system:vpa-admission-controller system:vpa-status-reader-binding
    // 删除ServiceAccount
    kubectl delete sa vpa-admission-controller vpa-recommender vpa-updater -n kube-system
    // 删除Secret
    kubectl delete secret vpa-tls-certs -n kube-system
    //删除CRD
    kubectl delete crd verticalpodautoscalercheckpoints.autoscaling.k8s.io verticalpodautoscalers.autoscaling.k8s.io

步骤2:安装ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件

  1. 登录容器服务管理控制台,在左侧导航栏选择集群

  2. 集群列表页面,单击目标集群名称,然后在左侧导航栏,选择运维管理 > 组件管理

  3. 组件管理页面,定位ack-vertical-pod-autoscaler组件,然后按照页面提示完成安装。

步骤3:重新部署VPA YAML文件

执行以下命令,重新部署步骤1:卸载集群中已经部署的VPA保存的VPA YAML文件,本步骤以nginx-deployment-basic-vpa.yaml为例。

kubectl apply -f nginx-deployment-basic-vpa.yaml

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